AGV Automatic Guided Vehicle
DLRB-FZAGV01 Load AGV
Load capacity: ≥30kg
Working voltage: 24V
Power supply battery/: lithium battery
Charging method: manual charging, automatic reminder
Continuous working time: 8 hours
Maximum power: 400W
Operating speed: 0-26m/min
Climbing angle: ≤3°
Positioning accuracy: ±10mm
Communication method: wireless local area network
Navigation method: magnetic navigation + RFID
Driving mode: four-wheel drive + mecanum wheel
Control method: WiFi control/manual touch screen control
I. Equipment overview
AGV is the abbreviation of Automated Guided Vehicle, which means a transport vehicle equipped with electromagnetic or optical automatic guidance devices, and able to travel along a prescribed guidance path, with safety protection and various transfer functions, transport vehicles that do not require a driver in industrial applications, and use rechargeable batteries as its power source. Generally, its travel route and behavior can be controlled by a computer, or an electromagnetic path-following system can be used to set up its travel route. The electromagnetic track is pasted on the floor, and the unmanned guided vehicle moves according to the information brought by the electromagnetic track.
AGV is characterized by wheeled movement. Compared with walking, crawling or other non-wheeled mobile robots, it has the advantages of fast action, high work efficiency, simple structure, strong controllability, and good safety. Compared with other equipment commonly used in material transportation, the activity area of AGV does not need to lay fixed devices such as rails or support frames, and is not restricted by site, road and space. Therefore, in the automated logistics system, it can fully reflect its automation and flexibility, and realize efficient, economical and flexible unmanned production.
II. AGV advantages:
(1) High degree of automation;
It is controlled by computer, electronic control equipment, laser reflector, etc.
When auxiliary materials are needed in a certain part of the workshop, the staff enters relevant information into the computer terminal, and the computer terminal sends the information to the central control room. Professional technicians issue instructions to the computer. With the cooperation of electronic control equipment, the instruction is finally accepted and executed by the AGV-sending the auxiliary materials to the corresponding place.
(2) Charging automation;
When the power of the AGV is running out, it will send a request instruction to the system to request charging (general the technicians will set a value in advance for charging application), and automatically go to the charging place after the system allows it to "queue" for charging.
In addition, the battery life of the AGV is related to the type and technology of the battery. Using a lithium battery, it can still maintain 80% of the electric energy storage when the number of charge and discharge times reaches 500.
(3) Attractive and degree, thereby enhancing the image of the enterprise.
(4) Convenience and space saving, the AGV in the production workshop can shuttle back and forth in each workshop.
III. AGV guidance mode
The reason why AGV can realize unmanned driving, navigation and guidance play a vital role in it. With the development of technology, the navigation/guidance technologies that can be used for AGV mainly shown as the following:
1. Cartesian Guidance
Using the positioning block to divide the AGV's driving area into several small coordinate areas. The guidance is realized by counting the small areas. Generally there are two types as following: photoelectric (dividing the small coordinate area into two colors and counting by photoelectric devices) and electromagnetic (Divide the small coordinate area into metal blocks or magnetic blocks, and count through electromagnetic induction devices). The advantage lies that the path can be modified, the guidance is reliable, and there are no special requirements for the environment. The disadvantage is that the ground measurement installation is complicated, the workload is large, the guidance accuracy and positioning accuracy are low, and it cannot meet the requirements of complex paths.
2. Wire Guidance
Wire guidance is one of the more traditional guidance methods, which is still used by many systems. It embeds metal wires on the driving path of the AGV, and loads the guiding frequency on the metal wires. The guidance of the AGV is realized by identifying the guidance frequency. Its main advantage is that the lead is concealed, not easy to be polluted and damaged, the guiding principle is simple and reliable, easy to control and communicate, no interference to sound and light, and low manufacturing cost. The disadvantage is that the path is difficult to change and expand, and it has great limitations on complex paths.
3 Magnetic Stripe Guidance
Principle of magnetic stripe guidance: The magnetic stripe navigation technology is similar to electromagnetic navigation. The difference is that it uses a magnetic strip on the ground instead of burying a metal wire under the ground, and realizes guidance through the magnetic stripe induction signal.
Dolang AGV is guided by magnetic strips. Dolang AGV completes the scheduled instruction tasks on the console. Transport the parts to the assembly station. AGV uses magnetic strips, RFID landmark cards, etc. to identify the navigation position.
Magnetic stripe guidance advantages: AGV positioning is accurate, magnetic stripe guidance is more flexible, easy to change or expand the path, magnetic stripe laying is relatively simple, the guiding principle is simple and reliable, easy to control communication, no interference to sound and light, investment cost is much lower than laser navigation;
Disadvantages of magnetic stripe guidance: the magnetic stripe needs to be maintained, and the damaged magnetic stripe must be replaced in time, but the replacement of the magnetic stripe is simple and convenient, and the cost is low.
4 Optical Guidance
Painting or pasting ribbons on the driving path of AGV can realize the guidance by simply processing the image signal of ribbons collected by the camera. It has good flexibility. The ground route is simple and easy to set, but it is very sensitive to the pollution and mechanical wear of ribbons, and has high requirements for the environment. The guidance reliability is poor and the precision is low.
5 Laser Navigation
Laser guidance is to install a precise laser reflector around the AGV’s driving path. The AGV emits a laser beam through a laser scanner and collects the laser beam reflected by the reflector to determine its current position and heading. Triangular geometry operation to realize the guidance of AGV.
The biggest advantage of this technology is that the AGV is accurately positioned; no other positioning facilities are required on the ground; the driving path can be flexible and changeable and can be suitable for a variety of on-site environments. It is the advanced guidance method preferred by many foreign AGV manufacturers; the disadvantage is manufacturing high cost, relatively harsh environmental requirements (external light, ground requirements, visibility requirements, etc.), not suitable for outdoor (especially susceptible to rain, snow, fog).
6 Inertial Navigation
Inertial navigation is to install a gyroscope on the AGV and install a positioning block on the ground in the driving area. The AGV can determine its own position and heading by calculating the gyroscope deviation signal (angular rate) and collecting the ground positioning block signal. Realize guidance.
This technology was used earlier by the military, and its main advantages are advanced technology. Compared with wired guidance, the ground processing workload is small and the path flexibility is strong. The disadvantage is that the manufacturing cost is high, and the accuracy and reliability of the guidance are closely related to the manufacturing accuracy of the gyroscope and its subsequent signal processing.
7 Visual Navigation
Visual navigation is to apply paint with high color contrast to the ground or paste a ribbon with high color contrast on the driving path of the AGV. A photo sensor is installed on the AGV to compare the continuously taken pictures with the stored pictures, and the offset signal Output to the drive control system, and the control system corrects the AGV's walking direction after calculation to realize the AGV's navigation.
Advantages of visual navigation: AGV positioning is accurate, visual navigation flexibility is better, it is easier to change or expand the path, path laying is relatively simple, the guiding principle is also simple and reliable, easy to control communication, no interference to sound and light, and investment cost ratio Laser navigation is also much lower, but slightly more expensive than magnetic stripe navigation;
Disadvantages of visual navigation: The path also needs maintenance, but the maintenance is simpler and more convenient, and the cost is also lower.
8 GPS (Global Positioning System) navigation (Global Position System)
Satellites are used to track and guide control objects in non-fixed road systems. This technology is still being developed and improved. It is usually used for outdoor long-distance tracking and guidance. Its accuracy depends on the fixed accuracy and number of satellites in the air, and Control factors such as the surrounding environment of the object.